Washing your face is the foundation on which healthy skin depends. Many environmental impurities and cosmetic products do not dissolve in water, so washing the skin with plain water would not be enough to remove them. In order for these fat-soluble impurities to become water-soluble, substances capable of emulsifying them into smaller particles must be used. Skin cleansers are surface-active substances that reduce skin surface tension and remove dirt, grease, and microorganisms. An ideal cleanser should do all this without damaging or irritating the skin, on the contrary, it should try to keep the surface of the skin moist.
Types of face washes
These are cleansers that contain a foaming agent that creates foam or bubbles. When the foaming cleanser penetrates the skin, the foaming particles can remove dirt, excess sebum.
Many people believe that foaming cleansers are naturally irritating because they strip the skin of its natural oils. But that's only because many foaming cleansers use sodium lauryl sulfate, or SLS, a synthetic agent.
When comparing foam with other washing products, these are characterized by a deeper cleaning of the skin. This type of cleanser is ideal for people with oily and acne-prone skin. Foaming cleansers are not recommended for those with dry or very sensitive skin, unless the cleanser is designed for dry skin. Although some foaming cleansers have oils or emollients added, it's still better to use a different type of cleanser.
Gel cleansers are completely different from foaming cleansers both in texture and appearance. They are usually transparent or light in color. Gel cleansers don't clean as deeply as foaming cleansers, but gentler cleansing doesn't necessarily mean less effective. Many gel-based cleansers have antiseptic properties thanks to their ingredients, so they're great for oily or acne-prone skin. Gel cleansers are water-based, so they are much less drying to the skin. The most suitable choice for oily, combination, normal skin.
Milk cleansers tend to be very gentle, have a thicker consistency and contain moisturizing ingredients. Cleansing milks usually consist of water, occlusive ingredients (beeswax, etc.)
Milks for removing make-up and skin can be used with water or put on a cotton pad first, wipe your face with it and then wash it off. These cleansers are a great choice for sensitive, couperose, dry skin.
Cleansing oils are oil-based cleansers that help remove makeup, surface dirt, and excess oil from the skin.
Oils not only moisturize, but also act as a lipophilic solvent. This means they are attracted to other oils, such as the oil produced by the skin and oily makeup ingredients. This way, the cleansing oil can dissolve make-up and excess oil and leave the skin nourished. In addition to oil, oil cleansers also contain surfactants and an ingredient called an emulsifier. These ingredients allow the oils and dissolved substances in them to combine with water and easily wash off the skin. A suitable choice for dry skin.
There is one exception: cleansing oils, which are not recommended for combination, oily, acne-prone skin, as they only add to the problem of oily skin.
A toner is a product used after washing the skin to balance the pH of the skin. Many cleansers are alkaline and can upset the acidic pH balance of the skin, which is why toners are used after cleansing. It is a common mistake to think that micellar water and toner are the same. Micellar water and toner work differently. Micellar water is a cleanser that removes makeup, dirt and oil. Tonic is a moisturizing and pH restoring agent . There is no need to wash off the tonic. The tonic is suitable and recommended for all skin types and the tonic can be chosen according to skin problems.
Factors leading to irritation with detergents
Surfactants . When surfactants bind to keratin, they cause protein denaturation, resulting in damage to the keratinocyte cell membrane. This in turn causes negative skin reactions. Although anionic surfactants are considered to have the highest irritation potential, their proportion in the detergent and their combination with cationic acrylate polymers or nonionic surfactants and humectants such as propylene glycol alters the irritation potential.
Skin cleanser residue on the skin . The irritation potential of the cleanser may increase the longer the facial cleanser is on the skin.
Which surfactants to choose for less skin irritation?
Depending on the composition of washing agents, you should choose products that contain amphoteric surfactants. They are generally less aggressive to the skin than anionic (SLS) surfactants. Amphoteric surfactants are often used in combination with anionic or cationic surfactants to increase mildness. Amphoteric surfactants also have good cleaning and foaming properties, moderate antimicrobial activity, compatibility over a wide pH range, and no cytotoxicity. The most commonly used amphoteric surfactants are cocamidopropyl betaine, lauryl betaine, sodium cocoamphoacetate, and disodium cocoamphodiacetate.
Micelles and micellar water
A micelle is a complex structure made up of gentle non-ionic surfactants (cleansing agents) that have an invisible microsphere.
Surfactant molecules have two ends, one that attracts water and one that attracts oil. This means that surfactants can combine water and oil, which normally don't mix.
As a result, surfactants are a common ingredient in detergents and soaps. The water-attracting end of each molecule points outward, while the oil-attracting end points inward. This allows the micelles to float in the liquid and attract and bind the oils they come in contact with.
While free individual surfactant molecules can penetrate quite deep into the skin, causing irritation, a group of surfactants – micelles, due to their larger size, remain on the surface of the skin where they do their work. The larger the micelles, the gentler the cleanser. Micelles like a magnet actively attract dirt, hold and dissolve them, grease and make-up.
Why is it recommended to wash off micellar water?
If the micellar water is not washed off, dirt remains on the skin, which can cause irritation and inflammation. Another reason why micellar water must be washed off is that surfactants (micelles) are not picky, they collect all types of oils from the skin. Micelles attract and collect skin-nourishing and protective oils that are essential to the skin's barrier, which is the foundation of healthy and beautiful skin. Unwashed micellar water dries the skin, as a result of which the skin barrier becomes damaged. Micellar water is not a tonic, micellar water is a skin cleanser. No ingredients in micellar water can change this fact.
What skin types is micellar water suitable for?
Micellar water is suitable for all skin types. However, it also depends on the specific ingredients in each formula, which vary from brand to brand. Some micellar waters are specially designed for sensitive or dry skin, while others are more suitable for oily skin. When using skin care products, it is important to consider skin reactions. The type, concentration, rinse factor, and pH of the surfactant can affect products, resulting in dry and irritated skin, whether healthy or damaged. Those with sensitive skin should consider the composition of micellar water, as it often contains ingredients that cause irritation reactions.
"Double cleansing" method
The dual facial cleansing method originated in 14th century Asia when the Koreans and Japanese had no other means of removing the white paint- like foundation that women wore on their faces. Over the years, oil and double cleansing methods have evolved to better suit our needs.
The double cleansing method is a method of cleansing the face twice: first, with an oily cleanser (cleansing oils, butters or balms) and second, with a water-based cleanser (cleansing foam, gel or cream cleansers). The advantage of double cleansing is that the first cleanser removes makeup, sebum, and sunscreen. The second cleaner cleans the residues of the aforementioned products, water-soluble dirt, sweat and dust. The second cleanser should be selected according to the skin type and skin problems.
When should you double cleanse your skin?
It is important to note that removing too much of the skin's natural oils can cause the skin to react by producing even more oil, resulting in excess oiliness and breakouts. All this means that the skin is dehydrated. The double cleansing method is recommended to be performed only once a day - in the evening, when the skin has accumulated dirt after the whole day and in order to better remove makeup and skin care products used in the morning.
2. Wash your face with cool water. Make sure the water is not hot, as such water dries the skin.
3. Apply a water-based cleanser and gently massage into the skin. This cleanser should match your skin type.
Oily skin: gel cleanser. A gel cleanser with salicylic or glycolic acids is perfect for acne-prone skin.
Dry skin: a cleanser with fewer surfactants, usually a cream cleanser.
Mixed skin: foam, gel cleanser.
Sensitive skin : a creamy cleanser free from artificial colors and fragrances and with soothing ingredients. Gel cleansers that are designed for sensitive skin are also suitable.
Carefully selected and recommended detergents that you can find at Carolinashop.lt :
- This gel cleanser contains coco-betaine, an amphoteric surfactant that was discussed in the article as less aggressive and non-cytotoxic.
- An excellent choice for combination, oily skin due to rosemary leaf oil, cypress oil, which have an antimicrobial effect, as the increased production of sebum increases the likelihood of breakouts. It should be noted that even oily or combination skin can be prone to sensitivity, and this cleanser contains geranium flower oil, rosemary leaf oil, which can cause skin irritation. Although this cleanser contains a lot of oils that can cause skin irritation, it also contains soothing substances: allantoin, aloe leaf juice, panthenol.
- The manufacturer writes that this cleanser is also suitable for normal skin, but after reviewing the composition, it is believed that long-term use could dry out the skin and irritate it. Most oils have antimicrobial properties, which is very important for oily skin, but normal skin does not need it for daily use.
Unique in that the gel turns into a gentle oil and the oil turns into milk.
- Cleanses the skin from environmental pollution particles, which is necessary for the skin to prevent premature skin aging.
- We think this cleanser is worth having in your skin care routine. Anyway, every skin is exposed to environmental pollution, which promotes skin damage and premature skin aging. The product can be used as a first cleanser, in a double cleansing of the skin, or as an alternate product with your existing cleanser and used once or twice a week. If the cleanser is suitable for the skin, it is not too oily, it can be used daily.
- The product is ideal for oily and combination skin due to the burdock root extract, which has anti-fungal and seborrhea-regulating properties. It can be safely used if mixed or oily skin is also sensitive, as the prickly pear contained in the composition reduces the symptoms of sensitive skin. The citric acid in lemons is used as a natural, gentle exfoliant.
- The manufacturer notes that the cleanser is also intended for normal skin, but we believe that what is intended for oily skin is not always suitable for normal skin. Due to the presence of sage leaf extract, oily and combination skin will feel clean and comfortable, as the extract has an astringent and toning effect, but normal skin may feel an unpleasant feeling of stretching.
- Cleanser with vitamin C is really suitable for any type of skin: oily, dry, mixed, normal as well as sensitive. Also a great choice for skin with pigment spots. A perfect option with hyaluronic acid, because vitamin C works together with hyaluronic acid to further stimulate collagen production.
- Methylparaben, ethylparaben can be found at the end of the composition, but this product should not be rejected because of this. These are the very common types of parabens that everyone fears, usually without scientific reason. It is a cheap, effective and well-tolerated ingredient that ensures that the cosmetic formula does not deteriorate prematurely .
- This washing foam also contains an amphoteric surfactant - cocamidopropyl betaine, which ensures less skin irritation.
- Contains no synthetic fragrances.
The manufacturer writes that the product is suitable for sensitive skin, but owners of sensitive skin should monitor the skin reaction when using this product. All this is due to several substances: "Methylchloroisothiazolinone", because it can easily sensitize the skin (it is a so-called odorless allergen). Limonene, found in grapefruit peels, is a very common fragrance ingredient that makes everything smell good, but it often causes skin allergies.
- The foam is also a suitable choice for dry skin, as it does not dry out the skin during washing. It can also be safely used on combination skin.
- Japanese saffron extract reduces redness, promotes antioxidant protection and reduces skin inflammation.
- After washing, it does not leave an oily film and you can safely wash the eye area because it does not irritate.
- Due to the oils in the composition, the cleanser is suitable for use on dry and sensitive skin. Gives dry skin a pleasant feeling after washing, as well as no feeling of stretching or dryness.
- The main components of this cleanser are oils such as safflower, sunflower, sweet almond. These ingredients make it a very pleasant and ideal cleanser for dry skin. After washing, the skin feels nourished, the skin does not pull.
- For oily skin, this cleanser can be used as the first step in a double cleansing method. Otherwise, using this cleanser alone is not recommended for these skins, as the skin may feel even more oily after washing. Although the manufacturer notes that sweet almond oil prevents the appearance of excess oil, thereby reducing the risk of inflammation and acne, there are other oils that can make oily skin even more oily.
- Rice bran oil, which contains vitamin E, moisturizes and promotes the renewal of skin cells.
- Baobab oil is rich in vitamins A, E and skin-nourishing fats (olein, linoleic acid).
- The manufacturer writes that the oil is intended for all skin types, but due to the oils in the composition, we recommend it more for dry, sensitive skin. For oily skin, this cleanser may seem too heavy, and for combination or acne-prone skin, there should be active ingredients fighting the causes of acne (regulating the production of skin oils, etc.). Especially suitable for use on mature skin, which is severely dry due to age-related changes.
- Gentle cleanser, does not damage the skin's protective barrier.
- The fragrance components of geranium flower oil (such as citronellol and geraniol) may cause irritation to sensitive skin.
- We believe that this cleanser is best suited for normal skin that has no problems and the goal is to wash off skin impurities and make-up.
- For oily, mixed, dry skin, we would suggest choosing cleansers that have more active ingredients that match the deficiencies of these skins.
- Provitamin B5 - soothes and moisturizes.
- The sodium form of PCA is an important skin-identical ingredient and an excellent natural humectant that helps the skin retain water and stay well hydrated.
- An excellent choice for dry and dehydrated skin, and such skin can be any skin type. All this is due to the included pantolactone, which is a synthetic humectant and maintains the moisture balance of the skin. The cleanser does not contain any irritating substances, so it can be safely used even on sensitive skin. In addition, the biomimetic anti-stress peptides in the composition reduce skin irritation.
PHFORMULA EXFO CLEANSE CLEANER (can be purchased only after consultation with a beautician - email@example.com, or by filling out the form HERE )
- The cleanser contains active exfoliating substances: lactobionic acid and papain enzyme.
- The papain enzyme helps break down the corneodesmosomal connections between damaged or dead cells. Lactobionic acid moisturizes and is gentle.
- All the ingredients in the composition are gentle, so it is suitable not only for mixed and oily skin, but also for normal skin.
- However, for normal skin, this cleanser is ideally suitable for use a couple of times a week, because in normal skin the layering of cells is not disturbed, so the enzyme papain is not intended for daily use.
- Lotus flower extract not only removes toxins from the skin, but also replenishes it with moisture.
- Sodium hyaluronate - HA of lower molecular weight, which penetrates deeper into the epidermis and moisturizes
- The product is really suitable for all skin types. A very pleasant, moisturizing and revitalizing product that can be used not only in the morning or in the evening, but also to revive makeup during the day. The mist can be used as a toner after washing the skin to restore the pH of the skin.
- The aloe in the composition is soothing, contains anti-inflammatory substances (including salicylates, polysaccharides, magnesium lactate and C-glucosyl chromone).
- This micellar water is suitable for all skin types. The product is gentle, so you can safely use it to remove make-up from all types of skin, but it is important to remember that the micellar water should be washed off after use. Although it can be washed off, attention should be paid if your skin is sensitive, as it contains citronellol and geraniol, which have skin-irritating properties.
- The skin does not dry out after cleansing with this micellar water because it contains sodium hyaluronate, which locks in moisture.
- This micellar can be safely recommended for all skin types and sensitive skin, as it does not contain skin-irritating components.
- Effective hydration thanks to aloe and cucumber extract and hyaluronic acid.
- Without mineral oils, talc.
- Suitable for all skin types. It should be emphasized that this micellar water is also very suitable for acne-damaged skin, because the colloidal silver in the composition has an anti-inflammatory effect and deeply cleans makeup residues, which is very important for acne-damaged skin.
The article was prepared by carolinashop.lt beautician Uršulė Grakauskaitė.